When Augusto Pinochet became the leader of Chile, three methods were used to establish his authoritarian regime. These methods were General Gustavo Leigh’s anti-Marxist actions incited partially by jealousy of Pinochet, Pinochet’s creation of the National Intelligence Directorate (NIDA) and his appointment of Manuel Contreras to lead it, and the decision of army general Sergio Arellano Stark speeding up military tribunals under Pinochet’s orders (46). General Gustavo Leigh was strongly anti -Marxist and he spoke out against Communism on multiple occasions and sought to be the new regimes strong man. He was motivated by his dislike for Pinochet who lead the regime, which was Leigh’s desire. Leigh viciously spoke out against Marxism and bombed the La Moneda Palace to try and create the image of himself as the person responsible for liberating the country (46). Pinochet inadvertently furthered his authoritarian regime by the jealousy he incited within General Leigh. An example of this is when Leigh realized that his air force men were leaving him to join NIDA, an unjust organization that disregarded due process in arresting and executing people, he created a similar structure within the air force to counter Pinochet. This just furthered the regime of Pinochet. These actions by Leigh were primarily political in nature as their purpose was to further his influence and to undermine General Pinochet. General Leigh’s actions affected class as the bombing of La Moneda Palace, the seat of the President of Chile and home of the offices of three cabinet ministers, affected the upper class and those with political import were persecuted. Leigh’s actions also effected those who were believed to be communists including political leaders, workers, and academics. The creation of NIDA by General Pinochet and the appointment of Manuel Contreras helped to promote the authoritarian regime as it served to create obedience by inciting fear among the citizens of Chile. NIDA disregarded the basic principles of due process and often arrested believed insurgents without warrant. People were arrested, tortured, and executed without a fair trial or any trial at all. Under Manuel Contreras, DINA was particularly vicious and served as the main ‘war’ on Marxism in Chile (50). The creation of DINA by Pinochet was political as he used it to eradicate and scare those who would oppose his regime. DINA sought support outside of Chile including to far right-wing politicians in Italy (52). DINA was created and succeeded in eradicating Communism within Chile and it achieved this through the economic support if received from various countries. Thus, the creation of DINA by Pinochet was also economic in nature as he utilized national funds to further DINA’s mission and sought financial support from outside nations. DINA effected gender as it sought out to destroy communists and communist sympathizers, these were generally political leaders, academics, and people of import within the Catholic Church. All three of these positions were traditionally held by men at this point in Chile. This left many widows for the nation and would have caused women to enter the workforce to support their families. DINA also threatened and terrified those who supported Marxism, including workers, which would have damaged the working class as they would have been terrified to continue their previous activities and affiliations. Pinochet’s orders to Sergio Arellano Stark to speed up military tribunals contributed to the rise of the authoritarian regime as they “expanded the climate of war” (48). Arellano, under Pinochet’s orders, traveled to various cities and would accuse members of grass roots political parties, workers, and academics of small misdemeanors and arrest them. These people would eventually be executed all for the sake of destroying Marxism. These actions incited fear within the people and prevented others from speaking out against Pinochet or associating themselves with any institutions that were accused of Marxism. The process of speeding of military tribunals was political in nature as it was comprised of the execution of political enemies and it incited fear into those who would potentially oppose Pinochet and his regime. The process of the speeding up of military tribunals also effected gender as the people who were branded as political enemies were generally men as women had very little influence in 1970’s Chilean society. The main role for women was as homemakers and mothers and thus they played little part in the institutions that became targets for the regime. However, as the men of this society were executed, the women had to take on a greater role within society do to necessity.
I was born at the age of three in a long cabin I built myself on the source of the mighty Mississippi.